1. Cybergaming rules
If one of the players (or team) is removed from the match (for whatever reason), all remaining rounds/cards will be considered a loss.
In the event that a game is carried over more than 48 hours, bets on the match shall be subject to return at a coefficient of 1.
2. Types of cybergaming outcomes
Who Will Go On In the proposed twos/couples one names a participant who will go on in the tournament grid. If both participants have left the tournament, the best shall be the participant who has gone furthest in the tournament grid. If both participants have been eliminated in the same round, the coefficient of winnings on the bets shall be equal to “1”. In the event that a participant refuses to enter a tournament before it begins, the coefficient of winnings on the bets shall be equal to “1”.
WINNER. The winner is a participant who gains the first place in the tournament. In the event that a participant refuses to enter the tournament before it begins, the coefficient of winnings on bets made on that participant shall be “1”.
First Blood bet – one must determine which of the teams will first defeat a rival player.
First Roshan bet – one must determine which of the teams will defeat Roshan first.
Round Length bet – one must determine whether the round will last for shorter or longer than the proposed time in minutes. Only the integer value of the minutes played is taken into account, that is, seconds are not taken into account.
The handicap, individual total, and even/odd round total is shown in “deaths” unless the line specifies otherwise. A “death” shall mean the death of a character for any reason (killed by enemy characters, Roshan, creeps, etc.).
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO)
Winner – A bet on a winner of the match. The match starts with the first kill in a pistol round.
1x2 – It is similar to the Winner outcome but it indicates the chance of a draw outcome. It is available in the matches where the draw outcome is possible (such as BO2 or BO1 matches with no overtime).
Handicap 0 – A bet on the winning team without including the draw. If there is a draw outcome, the bet is calculated with the odds at 1 (the bet returns).
Map number – Winner (including overtime) – A bet on a winner of the chosen map within the match. Includes additional rounds.
Map number – First half winner – A bet on a team that is the first to win 8 rounds on the chosen map.
Map number – Odd/Even number of rounds – A bet on an odd or even number of rounds on the map, not including the overtime.
Map number – If there is overtime – A bet on whether the match goes to overtime on the chosen map.
Map number – If there is team kill – A bet on whether there is a team kill from the chosen team on the chosen map. Team kill means killing your team member.
Map number – If there is knife kill – A bet on whether there is a knife kill of the opponent from the chosen team on the chosen map.
Map number – Pistol round winner – A bet on a team that wins the chosen pistol round.
Map number – Two pistol rounds winner – A bet on a team that wins both pistol rounds on the chosen map.
Map number – Bomb planted in pistol round N – A bet on whether there is a bomb planted in the specified pistol round on the chosen map.
Pistol rounds (the first and the second ones) are the first and the sixteen rounds in the overall score on the map.
Total number of rounds – A bet on the total number of rounds played by both teams in the match, not including the overtime.
Team N – Total number of rounds – A bet on the total number of rounds won by the specified team in the match, not including the overtime.
For example, a player places a bet on the outcome of 24.5+ of team 2. The BO3 match ended with the loss of the specified team with a score of 11-16: 13-16. The total number of rounds won by team 2 is 24 (11+13). The bet loses as the number of rounds won is lower than the value specified in the Slip. However, if a bet is placed on the outcome of less than 24.5, and the number of rounds won in the match is 24, the bet wins.
Team N – Total number of pistol rounds won – A bet on whether the specified team wins the chosen number of pistol rounds in the match.
Map number – Total number of rounds – A bet on the total number of rounds on the map, not including the overtime. For example, if a player places a bet on the outcome of 26.5, and the total number of rounds played on the map is 26, the bet loses as the number of rounds played is lower than the value specified in the Slip. However, if a bet is placed on the outcome of less than 26.5, and the number of rounds played is 26, the bet wins. The maximum number of rounds that can be played is 30.
Map number – Total number of rounds for team N – A bet on the specified number of rounds that are played by the team N on the specified map, not including the overtime.
Map number – Total number of rounds for team N played for Terrorists/Counter-Terrorists – A bet on the specified number of rounds won by the team N on the specified map, not including the overtime, when it plays for the specified team: attack (Terrorists) or defense (Counter-Terrorists).
Map number – Total number of rounds that end with the bomb explosion – A bet on the total number of rounds on the map (not including the overtime) that end with the bomb explosion.
Map number – Total number of kills in the pistol round – A bet on the total number of kills from both teams in the specified pistol round on the map.
Round handicap – Advantage or disadvantage of one of the teams displayed in the total number of won or lost rounds in the match, not including the overtime.
Map number – Round handicap – Advantage or disadvantage of one of the teams displayed in the total number of won or lost rounds on the specified map, not including the overtime.
Map number – Round X Winner - A bet on a winning team in a certain round on the specified map. A win in the round is achieved by killing all the opponents on the map, blowing up/defusing the bomb or running out of time on the round timer.
Map number – Race to X rounds – A bet on which team is the first to reach the chosen number of rounds on the specified map.
Map number – Exact score – A bet on the final specified score for the specified map. If the score on the map reaches 15-15, all the bets on that market will be calculated at odds of 1.
Odd/even number of maps – A bet on an odd or even total number of maps played in the match. It is only used for BO3 matches.
Total number of maps – A total number of maps played in the match.
Map handicap – Advantage or disadvantage of one of the teams displayed in the number of won or lost maps.
Exact map score – You are to choose the exact final score in the match played by the maps.
Map number – Round X – Winning method – You are to choose the exact winning method in the chosen round on the specified map. The round can be won using one of the following methods: killing all the opponents on the map, blowing up the bomb, defusing the bomb, running out of time on the round timer.
№ map-Total Over + Win- Bet on which team will win the map in question in regular time and the total rounds scored by both teams will be higher than the designated total for this map. Bets do not include overtime (if overtime is played, then bets on all outcomes for this market lose).
The map can be won in at least 16 rounds. In case of a draw on the map (when the score is 15-15), the tournament rules usually suggest playing 6 additional rounds, which are also called overtime. The first team to win 4 out of 6 additional rounds in the overtime is the winner. In case of a draw in the overtime (both teams won 3 rounds of overtime each), the next overtime starts (6 additional rounds).
Map number - 1x2 overtime N – A bet on a winner of the chosen overtime on the specified map but with a chance of the draw outcome.
Map number – Exact score of overtime N – A bet on the exact final score for the overtime N on the specified map.
Map number – Odd/even number of rounds of overtime N – A bet on an odd/even number of rounds played in the overtime.
Map number – Total number of rounds of overtime N – A bet on the total number of rounds played in the overtime N.
Map number – Winner of the first half of overtime N – A bet on a team that is the first to win 3 rounds in the overtime N on the chosen map.
For example, if a player places a bet on the outcome of 5.5+, and the total number of rounds played in the overtime is 6, the bet wins as the number of rounds played is higher than the value specified in the Slip. If the bet was placed for the outcome of less than 5.5, and the number of rounds played was 4 or 5, the bet wins.
3. Managing accounts
3.1. Opening an account
To gain access to all basic services on the Site, an account must be opened. To do this, the player must provide his/her e-mail address and set a password which will subsequently be used to enter the player’s account.
It is also desirable that the player fill in his/her personal information.
3.2. Correctness of the information provided
The player confirms that upon registration for the Site he/she has provided full, accurate, and reliable information about him- or herself and that if any changes occur in this information, the player must immediately apply them to his/her profile. Failure to comply with these rules or disregarding of them may lead to the placing of limitations on the player’s account, suspension or blocking of the account, as well as cancellation of payments.
3.3. Bet history
Previous bets may be viewed at any time by entering the “My bets” section of the site. By using the filter to search by date, you may choose the specific period that interests you and view your bets.
3.4. Account history
All of your financial transactions can be accessed at any time. To view them, log in and enter the section “Cashbox” and the section “Payment history”.
3.5. Your balance
The current balance of your account is shown at the very top of the site. More detailed information about the state of your real and bonus balance is available on your profile in the section “Balance”.
4. Making deposits
Before depositing funds into your account, you must log in. After logging in to the system, click on “Cashbox” to choose the means for depositing funds on your balance. After choosing a payment method convenient for you (e.g. Visa or Mastercard), enter the amount to deposit and click “Deposit”.
Depending on the payment method that you have chosen, you may be transferred to the page for providing the necessary payment credentials. Enter the necessary details and click “Pay”. If the transaction is successful, then the money will appear on your balance immediately.
5. Types of bets
An Ordinary bet is a bet on one selection in one event. This is the simplest bet type, in which your selection must win for you to receive winnings (a return). After choosing a certain result that you want to place a bet on, you simply specify the desired amount of the bet and confirm it. If the result is the right one, then you win. Winnings are calculated by multiplying the coefficient by the amount of your bet.
By making a bet on the outcome of two or more events, your bet is automatically placed on the Express bet slip. The total coefficient for an Express bet is calculated by multiplying the coefficients of all outcomes.
Note that in order to win, all events included in an Express bet must be predicted; a loss on one of the events in an Express bet shall mean a loss on the entire Express bet.
By betting on the outcome of three or more events, it is possible to make a "system" bet type in betting slip. In this type of betting, you have the option to create a number of combo bets that will become part of the "system". The "possible winning" of such a bet is calculated by adding the winnings of all the express bets that represents the "system". Selecting a combination, for example, two of three (2 \ 3) or three of six (3 \ 6), you choose the number of outcomes that should win to get at least a part of the winnings. To get the full "possible winnings", you need to guess all the events included in the "system". The loss of one of the "system" events will result in smaller gains. In some cases, the winnings may be less than the amount of the bet. Since the funds in the "system" are distributed in equal parts between its constituent expresses when making a bet, the amount of the win will depend on which of the expresses and with what odds they played. The size of the total bet is calculated by adding all the bets to groups. A group is one combo bet in the "system".
Before placing a bet, you can check the combination structure and possible winning of each of the combo bets in the "Choose a combination" section by clicking on the check mark to the right of the number that indicates the number of combo bets that are part of the "system".
6. General rules
6.1. Changes in the rules
GG Bet retains the right to update the rules at any time and to add new rules. In this case, new rules or a new version of the rules shall enter into force and shall be applied immediately upon their publication on the website. The updated rules shall govern all bets made after the publication of such rules.
6.2. Age restrictions
Persons under the age of 18 (hereinafter referred to as the “Age Limit”) are forbidden from registering on the company’s website and/or placing bets. Use of the Site by a person who has not reached the Age Limit shall be a direct violation of the Agreement. In connection with this, we have the right to demand documentation that can attest to the player’s age. A player may be refused provision of services, and activity on his/her account may be temporarily halted if upon our request no proof is provided that the player’s age is over the Age Limit.
6.3. Protection of personal information
To show our firm position on doing business to international standards, we are publishing this provision on data protection. We believe that proper business relationships can only be built on the basis of honesty and trust. Therefore, the confidentiality of your personal information is extremely important for us.
You can enjoy playing with the knowledge that we are taking all measures to ensure the safety of your transactions. All of your information (including your e-mail address, IP address, and other information) is private and confidential and will not be transferred, sold, or distributed to third parties.
GG Bet upholds spam-prevention policies. All e-mails sent to our players are related to their player accounts. E-mails may also contain current promotional materials and information about new site features. Information about the player’s winnings and actions performed by him/her are also strictly confidential and stored in a protected environment.
GG Bet does not disclose information about winnings except in cases when such information is officially requested by regulatory authorities. If you have any questions on the protection of your personal information, please contact the online support service. We will be happy to assist you.
6.4. Multiple registration
Opening more than one player account is prohibited. If it becomes known that a participant in betting has multiple player accounts, then all but one will be closed down, and further special offers of the company shall be sent only to the remaining player account.
If it is suspected that a participant in betting has opened several player accounts with the aim of taking advantage of promotional offers or bonuses, the company has the right to withdraw all bonuses and offers and to not take them into account when calculating subsequent bets.
7. Rules for accepting bets
7.1. GG Bet accepts bets on the basis of active lines shown on the GG Bet website on the date that the bet is concluded.
7.2. Bets are accepted for the basic time of the match unless the rules state otherwise.
7.3. Bets are accepted before the beginning of the event. Exceptions to this rule are Live bets, which are taken for events currently ongoing. When placing a bet, a player confirms that he/she does not know the outcome of the event on which he/she is placing a bet.
7.4. All disputes (incorrect calculation of a bet, non-calculated bet, etc.) are accepted for 30 days from the moment that the event ends.
7.5. Changes to Lines (coefficient of winnings, values of handicaps and totals, limits on express bets, maximum bet amount, etc.) can be made by GG Bet at any time. The terms for bets made by the Player before changes to a Line shall be maintained.
7.6. The minimum and maximum size of bets on all sporting events is set by GG Bet and may be changed without prior written notice.
7.7. Any bet (including a Live bet) placed on an event, the result of which is already known at the moment of betting, shall be considered null and void and shall be subject to return, as well as excluded from an express bet.
7.8. All pre-match bets that were made after the game has started are calculated with the odds equal 1.
7.9. GG Bet makes every effort to ensure all information provided is accurate. However, the company cannot be held responsible for the accuracy, completeness and timeliness of the information provided. Errors in information regarding an event are not grounds for cancelling a bet. Exceptions include when incorrect odds have been provided by mistake (i.e. obvious typos in the odds or a discrepancy between the odds and/or the real event score).
7.10. The player bears sole responsibility for his/her bets. The player is obliged to ensure that the details of his/her bet are correct. As soon as a bet has been made and its acceptance has been confirmed, it cannot be changed or canceled by the Player. All bets are clearly indicated onscreen together with a request for the Client to enter his/her password to indicate agreement with the terms of the bet before such bet is accepted. After a bet is accepted, it cannot be amended.
7.11. Connection failure or other technical faults in the Player’s communications shall not be a reason to cancel a bet if the bet has been registered on the server.
7.12. In the event that bets are calculated incorrectly (due to technical fault, improper entry of event results, etc.) the bets that were incorrectly calculated are subject to recalculation.
7.13. Disqualification of a player/team
If a player or team is disqualified for unsportsmanlike conduct (cheating/fraud/match-fixing/use of cheats/no-show during match), then all bets on this game will be void and settled at odds of 1.00. Disqualification for violating competition rules and/or improper behaviour/moral character of the players is not a valid reason for issuing refunds of bets on a game.
7.13.1. Unsportsmanlike conduct
If there is reason to believe that unsportsmanlike conduct (cheating/fraud/match-fixing/use of cheats/no-show during match) has occurred in a game, then all bets on this game will be void and settled at odds of 1.00. For a period of ten days after the end of a match, the bookmaker reserves the right to change bet payouts on the basis of official source information. Once this period has elapsed, no requests to resettle payouts will be accepted.
If a game is postponed for more than 48 hours, then all bets on this game will be void and settled at odds of 1.00. Tennis is an exception to this rule, given that matches can be rescheduled throughout the course of the tournament, and bets can be settled according to the official result.
If a match is interrupted, but will be completed from the current score/point in the match within the next 48 hours, then all bets stand and will be settled according to the final result.
If a match/map is interrupted, but will be replayed within the next 48 hours, bets on any outcomes which can be settled based on the current score when the map was interrupted will be settled. Otherwise, all bets on this map will be void and settled at odds of 1.00. All match bets stand and will be settled according to the final result.
If a player(team) forfeits a match before it starts, then all bets on this match will be void and settled at odds of 1.00. If a player (team) withdraws from a match/map (injury, withdrawal, forfeiture etc. but excluding disqualification) after it has already started (the start of a map is defined as the start of the game timer), then bets will be settled as follows:
1. Bets on map winner (if started but not completed) and match winner will be settled according to the official result.
2. Bets on maps where the result is known at the point of interruption will be settled according to that result.
3. Bets on matches (handicap on maps, exact score on maps, total and even/odd number of maps) are calculated based on the map winner.
4. Bets on matches for which the result could not be determined at the time of the interruption will be void and settled at odds of 1.00.
5. If the map has not begun, then all results of this map (including map winner) will be void, and settled at odds of 1.00.
If the winner of the map is not determined (due to forfeit before the map starts), Map Winner bets will be settled according to the official result.
Other match bets are only settled if the relevant outcome could be determined according to the maps played before the forfeiture (maps played during or after a forfeiture do not count). If the result of the bet cannot be determined, then the bet will be void and settled at odds of 1.00.
7.13.6. Change in match format
A change in the match format shall be understood to mean a change in the scheduled number of maps in the match and/or a decision by match organisers to give a player (team) a one map advantage. In this case, map bets are settled, and match bets (including match winner, exact score of match, forfeit on maps, total and even/odd number of maps) will be void and settled at odds of 1.00.
7.14. GG Bet has the right to not accept bets from Players without giving a reason, as well as to not accept bets from those who have violated the Rules, and GG Bet retains the right to close or temporarily block the accounts of individual Clients without prior notice.
7.15. Users are prohibited from placing several identical bets on the same match in order to bypass limits. Such actions will be regarded as a major violation of rules and may lead to additional limits, betting caps, and may result in account blocking.
7.16 GAME TIME OVER/UNDER
Bets on the market ‘GAME TIME OVER/UNDER’ are calculated based on total map/match duration. Duration is determined by the official in-game timer. // Example: GAME TIME OVER/UNDER, the map was played for 36 minutes 01 seconds. This is considered as the 37th minute, and the winning bet will be ‘Over 36.5’, the losing bet will be ‘Under 36.5’. If the map was played for 36 minutes 00 seconds, then the winning bet will be ‘Under 36.5’, and the losing bet will be ‘Over 36.5’.
7.17. If a sporting event is postponed, interrupted, or canceled for any reason, all bets on this event stand until the event has taken place, provided this happens within 48 hours of the original official scheduled start time. If the event is not completed within 48 hours, such bets will be settled at odds of 1.00.
7.18. Winner means bets placed on a match winner. Bets are settled based on the number of maps or rounds (if a match only lasts for 1 map) won. Bets will be settled including extra rounds (unless specified otherwise in 7.14).
8. Placing bets from one’s bonus balance
8.1. When placing bets from one’s bonus balance, the rules and conditions for wagering with an active bonus are applied. You can familiarize yourself with these conditions in the “Promotions” section at GG Bet.
8.2. If a bet has been placed from a bonus balance that has not been won back and which has been used up by payout before the time that the bet is calculated, the given bet will be canceled and no further calculations will be made on it.
8.3. Each player has two balances: a real one and a bonus one. A player’s real balance is primarily used for bets. Only when the amount on a player’s account is zero can he/she begin playing with bonus funds. All winnings received when playing with bonus funds shall be calculated to the player’s bonus balance.
8.4. If a bet was made from the bonus balance which was subsequently won back (funds were converted to real funds), then further calculations will not be carried out on that bet.
8.5. If a player, for whatever reason, does not wish to use bonus funds, then he/she can place bets using real funds without involving the bonus funds. The player can access the current amount of available real funds by clicking on his/her balance in the top part of the screen.
9. Live bets
Live bets are bets taken during an event and only for outcomes, the results of which are still undetermined. Live bets are offered in the special section “Live bets”
9.1. Coefficient in Live bets
The coefficient for events changes in real time. The coefficient can rise or fall in the period between the choice of the bet and its acceptance, which may influence the value of winnings. The coefficient for these bets changes gradually to reflect the development of events in the match
9.2. Results for Live bets
GG Bet carries out the calculation of “Live” bets on the basis of its own statistical data on the actual course of the game. Unless otherwise stated, in “Live” bets all bets on athletes not participating in the competition shall be considered null and void. For outcomes, the results of which become known during the match, the calculation of bets, if possible, shall be carried out directly upon the completion of the event.
All bets the outcome of which was defined in “Live” mode (in particular, bets on who will win a certain segment of the match or whether the total will consist of “more”), shall be considered valid and are calculated even in the event that the tournament or event was interrupted.
Claims for bets made on a Live event shall be taken into consideration within 24 hours from the start of the event.
If the match is interrupted or is not completed within 48 hours, the bets calculated up to this moment shall not be subject to recalculation. For outcomes, the results of which are not clearly defined, which have not taken place and/or have not been fully completed, the coefficient of winnings on bets shall be equal to “1” (return of bet).
10. Minimum and maximum bet
10.1. Minimum bet
The size of the minimum bet for all events and sports is 0.5 euro or equal in USD/RUB.
10.2. Maximum bet
The maximum bet size for an event is shown in the current line and is determined by GG Bet for each event specifically, as well as for each type of bet, and is subject to change without prior notice of any kind.
GG Bet retains the right to limit the minimum and maximum amount of the bet on individual events, to decline or cancel repeated bets for one and the same result, or on a practically the same combination of results from one participant of a bet and/or a group of participants of a bet, as well as to introduce or cancel all limitations of any kind for any participant of a bet and/or a group of participants of a bet without additional notice and any explanation of the reason for such limitations.
11. Bonuses and promotions
GG Bet regularly offers promotions for new and longtime players. You can get more detailed information by contacting our support team
12. PLAYERUNKNOWN'S BATTLEGROUNDS (PUBG), FORTNITE AND Call of Duty Warzone BETTING RULES
12.1. The recording of a match as a Twitch clip is available to get by request. All complaints are being considered within 24 hours since the ending of the match.
12.2. “Total Headshot Kills” market – only frags (opponent kills) made by headshot are taken into account.
12.3. If the game is played in the format of teams (duo or squad), the "Total Kills" and the "Total Headshot Kills" markets are calculated only due to the result of one player, which is indicated in the header of the game, but the final place in a rate market (Top 5/10/20 ... ) counts according to the entire team result.
12.4. In case if the streamer is leaving the match via the game menu before landing on the surface all the bets are remaining in force for the next match.
12.5. If there are circumstances within which the result of the match is unknown, then the bets which were played to that moment will be counted due to the end-of-the-match results, all other bets will be resulted with the odds 1.0.
12.6. If the streamer changes the game mode, all bets that were made before landing on the surface will be calculated with the odds 1.0.
12.7. The Company is not responsible for any actions of the streamer (player), bugs or software errors in the game that prevented the player from achieving the desired result.
12.8. In case of streamsniping the company leaves for itself the right to count all bets made on this match with the odds 1.0.
13. Basic esports betting rules
13.1. All the bet types, bet settling, maximum win amounts regarding esports bets correspond to GGBET Betting Rules.
13.2. When the match is interrupted in cases of participant's refusing to play or disqualification, connection loss, game delay or it's restart or in cases of any technical issues, the bets on all the markets will be refunded except those ones for which the results were already known at the interruption moment.
13.3. If the game is not played within the next forty eight hours from it's initially planned start time the bets on this event will be cancelled and refunded.
13.4. Football esports
13.4.1. The game consists of two times, while the time duration is determined without the extra time and/or penalty series.
13.4.2. The bets are settled in accordance with the main time results.
13.4.3. The substitution quantity is not limited, and the team squad can be any.
13.5. Basketball esports
13.5.1. The betting rules correspond to the betting rules for classical basketball games.
13.5.2. The game consists of 4 quarters.
13.5.3. The bets on a team to win, draw and on any other outcomes of the second half and the fourth quarter are accepted on the main time. All the other suggested markets are settled taking into account the overtime results untill the bet name (market) states otherwise.
13.5.4. Bets on totals for a quarter include points scored by the teams during that quarter and not the complete match down to the end of that quarter.
13.6. Ice Hockey esports
13.6.1. The betting rules correspond to the betting rules for classical Ice hockey games.
13.6.2. The game consists of 3 periods without the overtime and/or penalty shot series.
13.6.3. The bets are settled referring to the results of the main time unless the bet name (market) states otherwise.
14.1. Cashout allows you to settle your bet early (before the sports event in question has finished).
14.2. Cashout is only available for single bets and may not be available for certain matches or outcomes.
14.3. Cashout can be used at any time after a bet has been placed, as long as the “sell bet” option is still available for the bet in question. In some cases, the “sell bet” option may be unavailable for a number of technical reasons (no available stream, technical errors when displaying the score, etc.); however, this option may become available again later.
14.4. To sell a bet, you must be a registered user. The option can be found by going to “Bet slip – My bets” or “Profile – Bet history” on the website. When you open detailed info on your bet, you need to press “Cashout” at the bottom.
14.5 The available amount will be displayed in the “Cashout” line of the bet slip. This amount may vary and will be calculated independently for each individual bet.
14.6. You may experience delays when you make a cashout request. A cashout request may be unsuccessful if the outcome in question is canceled or void.
14.7. The cashout amount offered at any given moment is the amount that will be refunded to your account if your request is successful.
14.8. Our website reserves the right to cancel cashout transactions in the following cases:
- If the cashout amount was displayed incorrectly
- If your bet was sold after the outcome of the market on which the bet was placed became known
- If the bet or outcome were settled incorrectly
- If the cashout option was used in conjunction with bonuses or promotions
If the sale of a bet is canceled, the bet will be settled based on the outcome of the sports event on which it was placed.
14.9. Our website reserves the right to alter the terms or to stop offering the cashout option without providing a reason or forewarning.